Studies in Archaeology

Studies in Archaeology

SIA 13 Historic Site Research Design in IllinoisVol. 14: Palos Village: An Early Seventeenth-Century Ancestral Ho-Chunk Occupation in the Chicago Area

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Edited by Duane Esarey and Kjersti E. Emerson with contributions by William T. Billeck, Stephanie L. Daniels, Laure Dussubieux, Kjersti E. Emerson, Thomas E. Emerson, Duane Esarey, Madeleine G. Evans, Matthew A. Fort, Kristin M. Hedman, Steven R. Kuehn, Thomas J. Loebel, Robert G. McCullough, Robert Mazrim, and Mary L. Simon

2021, 268 pp., full-color photos and figures, references, online downloadable appendices

Just over half a century ago, a series of excavations were undertaken by the Field Museum of Natural History of Chicago on the Palos village site located on lands managed by the Forest Preserve District of Cook County. Preliminary evaluation of the excavated materials suggested that they represented a Native occupation that likely dated to the poorly known period just prior to European contact. Further analysis was not undertaken at that time, and the materials and documents disappeared from public view—until now.

This Palos Village volume is a breakthrough in Midwestern archaeology. With it, all of the tools that archaeologists and historians have long needed to build the bridge that connects Native history across the great gap of AD 1575–1650 period in Illinois are now in hand. The chapters in this volume focus on specific material and historical aspects of this little known period of great change—the early and middle sixteenth century—and provide the all-important bridge that lets the reader see Native American historical continuity where before archaeologists and historians had seen only disruption. People need to hear stories about continuity. We owe them to the citizens of Illinois and to the native people whose ancestors lived through this critical period of history. The period was far more complex than revealed in standard archaeological accounts where one or another artifact type is seen to indicate this or that Tribal Nation. History is seldom that simple and Palos helps to open our eyes to this reality.


SIA 13 Historic Site Research Design in IllinoisVol. 13: Possible Futures for the Recent Past: A Chronological and Resource-Based Framework for Historic Site Research Design in Illinois

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Edited by Robert Mazrim with contributions by Thomas E. Emerson, Duane Esarey, Robert Mazrim, and a Preface by Brad H. Koldehoff and Timothy R. Pauketat

2020, 192 pp., full-color photos and figures, references

This long-awaited volume addresses many topical issues in historic-era archaeology today. The 192-page paperback volume is printed with full-color figures and images and includes contributions by Brad H. Koldehoff, Dr. Thomas E. Emerson, Dr. Duane Esarey, and Dr. Timothy R. Pauketat.

Don’t let the rather standard subtitle fool you—this is no ordinary compilation of “best practices” or manual for research design in Illinois archaeology. Instead, it is a provocative manifesto delivered with language that palpably conveys the editor’s experience with, hopes for, and frustrations within historical archaeology.... Some readers will find Mazrim’s take refreshing and inspirational for historical archaeology going forward in 2020; some will take Mazrim’s critiques to heart, even if disagreeing with some points or perspectives, to seek more robust or at least more tailored archaeological interpretations; and others will push back.... This volume will surely become required reading for all historical archaeologists in Illinois, as they will have to come to terms with the issues laid out clearly here, but this book will also resonate with historical archaeologists across the U.S. who tackle similar issues, especially ones that concern the very fabric, value, and practice of U.S. historical archaeology focused on the last 150 years.

—Stephen W. Silliman, University of Massachusetts, Boston


SIA 12 Revealing Greater CahokiaVol. 12: Revealing Greater Cahokia, North America’s First Native City: Rediscovery and Large-Scale Excavations of the East St. Louis Precinct

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Edited by Thomas E. Emerson, Brad H. Koldehoff, and Tamira K. Brennan

2018, 568 pp., full-color photos and figures, references

The detailed analysis and full interpretation of the thousands of features and well over a million artifacts recovered from the ISAS–IDOT excavations in the East St. Louis Precinct will be a decades-long process and will require the ongoing efforts of numerous archaeologists and specialists. Yet the sheer magnitude of the excavations and the unique discoveries required that we make the basic synopsis of the excavation results available both to Eastern Woodlands scholars interested in the development of regional complexity and colleagues interested in early urbanization on an international scale. It is also important that these amazing discoveries be made available to the general public. Even if that extensive data is presented here in a summary fashion, these chapters are built on a foundation of data-rich volumes currently in production.

We are also driven by the dire situation that the remaining 96% of the East St. Louis Precinct and the majority of Greater Cahokia face imminent destruction, existing as they do within an area of increasing urban redevelopment. Only through an economic fluke that saw the collapse of the East St. Louis business infrastructure in the mid-twentieth century was most of the pre-Columbian history of this buried native city preserved. The period of economic stagnation has ended with the construction of the Stan Musial Veterans Memorial Bridge. Greater Cahokia is in increasing danger of total destruction. It is imperative that this buried historic treasure be brought to the attention of the state, the country, and the world. It is the crown jewel of Native American political, social, and religious achievement—it deserves rescue, protection, preservation, and interpretation. We are hopeful that the information and insights presented in this volume will help demonstrate the cultural significance of Greater Cahokia in general and ancient East St. Louis in particular and, in turn, will foster greater appreciation and further preservation.

These monographs are incredibly rich in detail and data, and true exemplars of the most significant products of our profession. These type of reports, with their well curated collections, will be used for centuries.

—David Anderson, University of Tennessee


SIA Volume 11

Vol. 11: Projectile Points and the Illinois Landscape: People, Time, and Place


Author: Robert J. Reber, Steven L. Boles, Thomas E. Emerson, Madeleine G. Evans, Thomas J. Loebel, Dale L. McElrath, and David J. Nolan

2017, 300 pp., full-color photos and figures, references

This 300-page hardback volume printed by the Illinois State Archaeological Survey includes thousands of full-color photos which show—in glorious detail—artifacts from all over Illinois. More than 80 projectile-point, knife, and cache-blade types are profiled—offering physical descriptions and distinguishing characteristics, distributions, ages, and, whenever possible, cultural affiliations. Multiple examples of each point- and blade-type are rendered in true color and shown against backdrops of relevant natural areas of Illinois. Using the landscape as a base, each spread in this volume draws together the settings of daily life and the natural resources used by the people who made these artifacts. Short essays on topics as diverse as bison hunting, early horticulture, bone pins, and bird symbolism accompany nearly half of the point-type presentations, providing a richer context from which to appreciate the diverse lifeways of Illinois’ earliest residents.

For collectors of Native American projectile points and students or professionals interested in lithic typology, Projectile Points and the Illinois Landscape: People, Time and Place will prove to be an invaluable resource not only for those in Illinois, but also for those in surrounding states and elsewhere. The use of all-color plates and the inclusion of the specific chert types with each illustration is unique and much appreciated. The volume goes much further than previously published "point guides" in that it clearly defines the use of these weapons and tools in relation to the time periods in which they were utilized and particularly in relation to the different environments across the state in which they were used. The book also emphasizes the importance these artifacts hold in regards to locating and interpreting archaeological sites and the adverse effect which years of unrecorded surface collecting might have in accomplishing meaningful scientific research. I commend the various authors who were responsible for this book's assembly, and highly recommend its inclusion in any archaeological library.

—Ray Fraser, Central States Archaeological Societies officer, Schaumburg, Illinois

Projectile Points and the Illinois Landscape, a first of its kind for the state, will be a crucial reference guide for projectile point types in Illinois and the surrounding area for decades to come. The book will appeal to both avocational and professional archaeologists. The authors place a strong emphasis on the relationship of point types to the local landscape, i.e., where points are likely to be found and why. They also rightly emphasize the importance of identifying raw material types, which is a skill that can be used to discover movements of prehistoric peoples and long-distance exchange networks. The production of the book in full color adds to the richness of the appearance of the artifacts and the raw materials from which they were made. Although some may view the typological approach as splitter classification, it is exhaustive of point types that have been described for and found in Illinois.

—Jack H. Ray, Center for Archaeological Research, Missouri State University

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SIA Volume 10

Vol. 10: Protohistory at the Grand Village of the Kaskaskia: The Illinois Country on the Eve of Colony

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Author: Robert F. Mazrim

2015, 176 pp., full-color figures, tables, references

The Zimmerman site (11LS13), or the Grand Village of the Illinois, is the largest protohistoric site in Illinois and was home to the Kaskaskia band of the Illinois Confederacy during much of the seventeenth century. Excavations began there in 1947, and the researchers eventually defined the suite of pottery types known as the “Danner Series” that is affiliated with the Illinois.

In 2010, the largest archaeological sample from the Zimmerman site, excavated between 1970 and 1972 (and believed lost by the 1990s), was relocated and reexamined. This has resulted in a clearer picture of the mid-seventeenth-century occupation of the site, the nature of traditional technologies at the close of prehistory in the region, and the character of the Illinois’s initial response to imported European goods.

The focus of Chapters 1 and 2 is on the seventeenth-century protohistoric and early historic component of “Grid A” at Zimmerman, using the 2010 tabulations and selected secure-context samples as their bases. Chapter 3 presents a refined type/variety taxonomy for Danner Series ceramics. Chapter 4 is a reexamination of the lithic industry associated with the seventeenth-century Illinois at Grid A. Chapter 5 presents a feature-based overview of faunal remains from the 1970–1971 excavations at Grid A. Chapter 6 discusses human remains and burial programs from across the site. A summary of the late prehistoric Huber phase ceramics and associated lithic industries from “Grid B” at Zimmerman is presented in Chapter 7. A linguistic context for the protohistoric-era activities of the Illinois is provided in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 includes comparative protohistoric samples from three additional sites in the Illinois Country. Chapter 10 presents a brief summary of the nature of technological change and Illinois identity as expressed in stone, clay, and brass at the Grand Village of the Kaskaskia.

Protohistory at the Grand Village of the Kaskaskia: The Illinois Country on the Eve of Colony is a beautifully produced scholarly and highly readable volume and an invaluable addition to the literature on the Late Prehistoric, Protohistoric, and Early Historic periods of the region…. The amount of information packed into this relatively small volume (only 175 pages, counting front material, the ten chapters, and bibliography) is stunning. The use of color photographs of artifacts throughout is highly commendable considering how many of the illustrated artifacts are European trade goods and/or Native remanufactured items. They provide an invaluable comparative reference for others working in the Protohistoric and Early Historic periods throughout Great Lakes and Midwestern regions.

—Jeffrey Behm, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

SIA Volume 9

Vol. 9: At Home in the Illinois Country: French Colonial Domestic Site Archaeology in the Midwest 1730–1800

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Author: Robert Mazrim

2011, 268 pp., figures, tables, references

At Home in the Illinois Country begins with an overview of the French settlement of Illinois, an examination of the villages where sites have been investigated, and also new research into the origins of the French community of Peoria. The second part of the volume includes an in-depth examination of traditional French ceramics and an illustrated overview of the material culture affiliated with the sites of French households. Part Three presents detailed excavation reports and artifact analyses from recently investigated sites at the villages of Cahokia, Peoria, and Prairie du Rocher. Finally, Part Four revisits older excavations and collections for reference and comparative discussion. The result is an exhaustive resource for those interested in the archaeology of colonial North America.

Mazrim’s original research elevates this volume from a simple overview of sites to a scholarly synthesis of the material world in French colonial homes. His scrutiny of patterns in the rich material record reveals a correlation with varied ethnic, economic, and political conditions of the region. Further, Mazrim’s use of primary documents to locate and interpret archaeological remains lends this book broader significance as an example of quality historical archaeology. The value of so many large color illustrations cannot be understated, such that a copy of this book will be well placed in laboratories as a comparative reference for interpreting contemporaneous artifacts and features. A copy on the office shelf will be an oft-used comprehensive guide to understanding the history and nature of domestic life in eighteenth-century Illinois Country.

—Ashley A. Dumas, Black Belt Museum, University of West Alabama, Livingston

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SIA Volume 8

Vol. 8: The Archaeology of Downtown Cahokia II: The 1960 Excavation of Tract 15B

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Author: Timothy R. Pauketat

2013, 352 pp., figures, tables, references, online downloadable appendices

This volume represents the final part of the analysis of those early Cahokia salvage efforts by IDOT. It reports on the information, interpretations, and conclusions garnered by Dr. Pauketat on Tract 15B which was excavated contemporaneously with Tract 15A (previously published) and the Dunham Tracts (available in electronic format only). Despite the challenging conditions under which the Tract 15B excavations were conducted, this analysis yielded significant new insights into pre-Mississippian complexity, the changing patterns of public and private uses of space, and the late prehistory of downtown Cahokia.

The volume does a very nice job of placing Warren Wittry’s work in its historical context and inserting the results in a current interpretive framework. Everyone may not agree with the interpretations proffered. However, thanks to the ample space devoted to data tables, color photographs, and detailed archaeological description, the basis for those interpretations is clear….

…Since this book is essentially a report of Wittry’s early work at the site, it contains more methodology and description than is typical of recent research monographs. That makes it especially relevant for American Bottom Mississippianists who want to parse every interpretation made. It does a very nice job of laying out the process by which archaeological data are organized, classified, and interpreted, and this makes it a very informative study for students to read as well.

—Dr. Adam King, SC Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia

For a more detailed discussion, see also Studies in Archaeology #1, The Archaeology of Downtown Cahokia: The Tract 15A and Dunham Tract Excavations.

SIA Volume 6

Vol. 6: Bottled in Illinois: Embossed Bottles and Bottled Products of Early Illinois Merchants from Chicago to Cairo 1840–1880

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Authors: Kenneth B. Farnsworth and John A. Walthall

2011, 816 pp., full-color figures, tables, references, index

This volume’s authors describe and illustrate nearly 1,100 different Illinois embossed-bottle varieties produced before, during, and after the Civil War for close to 500 Illinois merchants operating in over 100 small towns and cities across the state, with populations ranging from just a few hundred souls to more than 100,000 people. The authors worked with historical archivists Eva Mounce and Curtis Mann to research the bottlers and bottled products included in this book—and 14 additional historical-research contributors added their local and regional expertise and knowledge to help make the volume a reality.

Because of the daunting scale of the effort needed to document embossed and stamped bottle styles, user/maker marks, bottle contents, and product histories, the few existing pioneering published studies of such bottles used by early Illinois merchants provide only partial, often regional, thumbnail-outline lists with little associated historical information on the merchants and their products. This study documents, illustrates, and provides historical-context studies of 87 embossed soda/mineral water bottles of this age, used by bottlers in 46 Illinois towns ranging from Chicago to Cairo.

The product manufacture and use information provided within these pages, combined with information from the archaeological sites where complete and fragmentary examples of the bottles were discarded, will no doubt be of use for overview studies of consumer behavior and patterns of product movement. But the immediate study’s focus is to provide archaeologists and historians with clear and comprehensive information on 1840–1880 bottle styles, product contents, product functions (both real and imagined), and merchant histories, to aid in reconstructing the age of archaeological site occupations and in interpreting site functions and occupant activities.

This…very scholarly work by two archaeologists (with LOTS of help by many collectors and archaeologists) is easily the best regional work ever completed on historic bottles. It concentrates on the area noted in the title—Illinois—between 1840 and 1880—a significant period of American bottle making. The quality of the full color images, excellent illustrations, descriptive manufacturing details, historic information, and even the girth (over 800 pages and 8.5 lbs in weight!) make this a must have book for archaeologists and collectors even if they are not particularly interested in the area…. At $125 it is not cheap, but given its importance and utility to the goals of this website, it is a bargain for that price for a truly monumental work.

—Bill Lindsey, Historic Bottle Website Author, Society for Historical Archaeology

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SIA Volume 5

Vol. 5: The Rhoads Site: A Historic Kickapoo Village on the Illinois Prairie

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Author: Mark J. Wagner

2011, 284 pp., figures, tables, references

The Rhoads site represents the remains of a late eighteenth- to early nineteenth-century Kickapoo village burned by American soldiers during the War of 1812. The Kickapoo village appears to have been organized around a series of individual family compounds consisting of post structures, deep food storage pits, and open-air work areas that contained smudge pits for smoking animal hides. European-made artifacts recovered consisted almost entirely of items such as brass kettles, trade guns, and knives associated with the Great Lakes fur trade. The recovery of bone and antler tools and ornaments, stone smoking pipes, and ceramic figurines from the site also provided evidence of continuity with late prehistoric and early historic period native peoples within the same region.

In this very interesting book, Mark J. Wagner combines aspects of a traditional site report with a case study of aboriginal culture change. Focusing on one critical period in Euro-American/American-Indian “entanglements” at the turn of the nineteenth century, the reader is given a surprisingly detailed view of conservative Kickapoo lifeways in one summer village in Illinois. This was a time when Indian peoples across the area struggled in their interactions with traders, soldiers, and politicians as they suffered increasing losses of population, territory, and their traditional ways of life. Many Kickapoo, following the dictates of the Shawnee Prophet, chose to reject many aspects of Euro-American material culture and influence, and return to what was recognized as a more traditional way of life in hope of recovering their lands and cultural power. The Rhoads Site serves as an archaeological test case for assessing the utility of this historical interpretation. Wagner is well qualified to deal with this particular archaeological record and the result is a highly informative and stimulating work.

—Brian G. Redmond, The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio

SIA Volume 4

Vol. 4: Illinois Hopewell and Late Woodland Mounds: The Excavations of Gregory Perino 1950–1975

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Author: Gregory Perino with introductory essay by Kenneth B. Farnsworth and Michael D. Wiant

2004, 624 pp., figures, tables, references, indicies

For the first time, the editors of this volume bring together 18 of Perino’s Middle and Late Woodland excavation manuscripts for publication. The volume begins with an introductory historical and bibliographical essay by Kenneth Farnsworth summarizing the history and focus of Perino’s work in the context of developments in Illinois archaeology during the 1950s–1970s. The 100-page Farnsworth introduction and the 18 Perino site excavation chapters of this ambitious volume report on excavations at three Middle Woodland habitation sites (Snyders, Apple Creek, and North), 12 Hopewellian mound groups (Meppen, Bedford, Montezuma, Pilot Peak, Helm, Swartz, Kraske, North, Peisker, Schafner, Gibson, and Joe Gay), two Middle/Late Woodland mound groups (Carter and L’Orient), four Late Woodland mound groups (Yokem, Homer Adams, Lawrence Gay, and Hacker), a buried Early Archaic habitation midden (Stilwell II), and a Terminal Archaic Red Ochre mortuary site (Collinsville).

This enormous volume brings together the results of Greg Perino’s quarter century of mound excavations at 17 sites in west-central Illinois, most of which had never before been published. Pieced together from Perino’s manuscript reports and photographs and the memories and notes of colleagues and students, this is a monumental archaeological jigsaw puzzle with some pieces still missing, but offering a view of an archaeological career and discoveries that can never be replicated. Profusely illustrated with over 400 plates and figures and supplemented by a detailed 12-page index, Illinois Hopewell and Late Woodland Mounds will forever change the way we think about the mounds and mound builders of the Midwest.

—Dr. John R. Halsey, State Archaeologist, Michigan Historical Center

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SIA Volume 3

Vol. 3: Early Hopewell Mound Explorations: The First Fifty Years in the Illinois River Valley

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Author: Kenneth B. Farnsworth

2004, 624 pp., figures, tables, references, index

Between 1878 and 1928, the first serious archaeological attempts to understand the rise of Hopewellian culture in Illinois were focused on excavation of burial mounds and documentation of grave artifacts and mortuary ritual. This volume assembles and reprints all 15 of the published seminal pioneer archaeological studies of this era and for the first time publishes two important never-before-seen pioneer mound excavation manuscripts. The volume’s reprint section is anchored by four reports documenting Warren K. Moorehead’s University of Illinois excavations at 22 mound groups in the region during 1927 and 1928.

The volume’s title essay, by Kenneth B. Farnsworth, is a substantial historical introduction to the pioneer archaeology of the era and the assembled pioneer Hopewellian studies. Farnsworth’s essay incorporates 32 previously unseen maps and photographs of the region’s pioneer archaeologists, their excavations, and some of the first recovered Illinois Valley Hopewellian artifacts. The essay discusses and maps 48 regional mound groups and incorporates unpublished data and correspondence culled from the archives of the University of Illinois, the Illinois State Museum, the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, the Smithsonian Institution, and elsewhere to document and interpret the history of the earliest regional Hopewellian excavations by Warren K. Moorehead and J. L. B. Taylor, John Francis Snyder, John G. Henderson, William McAdams, David I. Bushnell, Gerard Fowke, James Middleton, Col. P. W. Norris, and others.

Ken Farnsworth has united fifteen early articles and two unpublished manuscripts and has masterfully tied them together to reveal the genesis of archaeology in the lower Illinois River valley. His introductory essay can stand alone as an important archaeological study. [The volume is] crafted with the consummate care of one who loves the topic. The First Fifty Years is a must for all Midwestern archaeologists, Hopewell specialists, and Illinois historians.

—William L. Mangold, Indiana Department of Natural Resources

SIA Volume 2

Vol. 2: Cahokia Atlas: A Historical Atlas of Cahokia Archaeology, Revised Edition

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Author: Melvin Fowler

1997, 267 pp., figures, tables, references, index

This volume is an updated and revised edition of the “best-selling” Cahokia Atlas, first published in 1989 and out of print for several years. This monumental work documents the structural features and archaeology of the famous Cahokia Mounds State Historic site, located in the Mississippi Valley’s “American Bottom” in west-central Illinois. Cahokia has been recognized as one of a select group of World Heritage sites of international importance by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

The main body of The Cahokia Atlas [documents] the importance of the site; the history of investigations undertaken there; historic and recent maps of the site; five chapters of descriptions, maps, and (in many cases) pictures of each of the 104 mounds and 20 borrow pits comprising the site complex; and three wonderfully synthetic concluding chapters discussing what Cahokia must have been like as it grew and declined; the organization of the site; specifically the arrangement of its architectural features into a central precinct surrounded by rings of satellite communities; and a somewhat philosophical retrospective on what has been done and remains to be done to better understand Cahokia archaeologically. These...chapters should be required reading in any serious graduate course on Eastern North American prehistoric archaeology.... Every reader will come away from this volume with an appreciation of how important Cahokia is to understanding cultural developments in eastern North America, as well as a sense of how work at a site like this can hold clues to the evolution of civilization itself.... I view The Cahokia Atlas as an essential guide to anyone seeking to understand the Cahokia site and its importance in American archaeology. The publication of this book in revised and updated form, and the fact that provisions for future revisions are in place, is a very real service to American archaeology and particularly to the American public.

—David G. Anderson, University of Tennessee

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SIA Volume 1

Vol. 1: The Archaeology of Downtown Cahokia: The Tract 15A and Dunham Tract Excavations

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Author: Timothy R. Pauketat

1990, 444 pp., figures, tables, references

The information, interpretations, and conclusions presented in this volume represent only one small portion of the outpouring of new ideas that have been produced by Dr. Timothy Pauketat’s analysis of the Tract 15A and Dunham Tract archaeological remains. His research, which began in 1988, quickly produced a dissertation entitled The Dynamics of Pre-state Political Centralization in the North American Midcontinent followed by a theoretically oriented monograph, The Ascent of Chiefs: Cahokia and Mississippian Politics in Native North America, and numerous articles on the Cahokian sphere. Up until now, however, the structural and artifactual basis for Pauketat’s innovative interpretations and new understanding of Cahokia have not been available to a wide audience. As Pauketat himself notes in his introduction, “significant advances in understanding past large-scale human organizations... require large archaeological samples” and additional advances demand that this information be made available to as wide an audience of fellow scholars as possible. This volume represents such a contribution to the present and future study of the great Cahokian center.

I suggest researchers interested in the development of complexity at Cahokia read this volume…. The clear presentation of data here allows evaluation of Pauketat's interpretation of rapid centralization of political-economic control at the beginning of the Mississippian period. This report is significant in part because it is one of only a handful of published analyses of residential areas at this important center. Perhaps it will motivate renewed efforts at completing analyses on the other 1960s salvage excavations from Cahokia.

—Mary Beth Trubitt, Western Michigan University

For a more detailed discussion, see also Studies in Archaeology #8, The Archaeology of Downtown Cahokia II: The 1960 Excavation of Tract 15B.

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