Thomas E. Emerson and Jeffrey S. Girard Pima spectrometer

Sourcing Hopewell Pipes and Cahokian Figurines

PUBLICATIONS | REPORTS | CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS | OTHER PRESENTATIONS

PUBLICATIONS

Wisseman, S.U., R.E. Hughes, T.E. Emerson, K.B. Farnsworth, Refining the Identification of Native American Pipestone Quarries in the Midcontinental United States, Journal of Archaeological Science (forthcoming in print, available online 4/13/2012) 2012 pdf file

2012 Supplementary material (PIMA and XRD spectra of pipestone types)

Wisseman, S.U., T.E. Emerson, R.E. Hughes, and K.B. Farnsworth, Provenance Studies of Midwestern Pipestones Using a Portable Infrared Spectrometer. Proceedings of the 37th International Sympoisum on Archaeometry (Siena, Italy 2008), pp. 335-348, 2011. pdf file

Fishel, R. L., Wisseman, S. U., Hughes, R. E., Emerson, T. E. Sourcing red pipestone artifacts from Oneota villages in the Little Sioux Valley of northwest Iowa. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, 35, 2, pp.167-198, 2010.

Wisseman, S.U., R. E. Hughes, T.E. Emerson, K. B. Farnsworth. Close to Home? Pipestone Quarry Utilization in the Midcontinental United States. In: Ancient Mines and Quarries: A Trans-Atlantic Perspective, edited by Margaret Brewer-LaPorta, Adrian Burke and David Field (Oxbow Books, Oxford) pp. 142-161, 2010

Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Kenneth B. Farnsworth, Sarah.U. Wisseman, and M. Hynes.Tremper Mound, Hopewell Catlinite, and PIMA Technology, Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 30 (2): 189-216, 2005.

Timothy K. Perttula, Thomas E. Emerson, and Randall E. Hughes, Catlinite Pipe, In T. Pertulla (Ed.), 41HO64/41HO65, Late 17th to Early 18th Century Sites on San Pedro Creek in Houston County, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 75: 96-99, 2004.

Farnsworth, Kenneth B., Thomas E. Berres, Randall E. Hughes, and Duane M. Moore. Illinois Platform Pipes and Hopewellian Exchange: A Mineralogical Study of Archaeological Remains
In: Aboriginal Ritual and Economy in the Eastern Woodlands. Essays in Memory of Howard D. Winters (edited by A.-M. Cantwell, L. A. Conrad, and J. E. Reyman) Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 30, Springfield, pp. 182-214, 2004.

Thomas E. Emerson and Jeffrey S. Girard. Dating Gahagan and Its Implications for Understanding Cahokia-Caddo Interactions,
Southeastern Archaeology 23 (1), Summer 2004: 57-64, 2004.

Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Mary Hynes, and Sarah Wisseman. The Interpretation and Sourcing of Cahokian Figurines in the Trans-Mississippi South and Southeast, American Antiquity 68 (2): 287-313, 2003

Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Mary R. Hynes, and Sarah U. Wisseman. Implications of Sourcing Cahokia-style Flint Clay Figures in the American Bottom and the Upper Mississippi River Valley.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 27 (2): 309-338, 2002.

Sarah U. Wisseman, Duane M. Moore, Randall E. Hughes, Mary R. Hynes, Thomas E. Emerson, Mineralogical Approaches to Sourcing Pipes and Figurines from the Eastern Woodlands, U.S.A.
Geoarchaeology 17(7): 689-715, 2002.

Randall E. Hughes, Mary R. Hynes, Philip J. DeMaris, Zakaria Lasemi, and Donald G. Mikulic. Development of the PIMA-SPTM (portable infrared mineral analyzer) for finding, mining, processing, and
marketing industrial minerals
, Proceedings of the 38th Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals, Rept. of Investigations No. 74,
Geological Survey and Resource Assessment Div., Missouri Dept. Nat.Resources, p. 113-126, 2002.

Thomas Emerson and Randall Hughes. De-Mything the Cahokia Catlinite Trade, Plains Anthropologist 46(175):149-161, May 2001

Emerson, T. E., and R. E. Hughes. Figurines, flint clay, the Ozark Highlands, and Cahokian acquisition American Antiquity 65(1):79-101, January 2000.

Hughes, R. E., T. E. Berres, D. M. Moore, and K. B. Farnsworth. Revision of Hopewellian trading patterns in midwestern North American based on mineralogical testing Geoarchaeology 13(7):709-729, 1998

REPORTS

Analysis Report No.1, Midcontinental Archaeometry Working Group, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. August 2003.
PIMA and Hunter Color Analyses on the Westbrook Cahokia Figurine and Bound Warrior Pipe.
Hughes, Randall E. and Thomas E. Emerson

Analysis Report No.2, Midcontinental Archaeometry Working Group, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. August 2003.
Spurlock Paints Second Report
Wisseman, Sarah U. and Randall E. Hughes

Analysis Report No.3, Midcontinental Archaeometry Working Group, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. March 2005 (rev. February 2008). Illustration of PIMA Spectra of Typical Pipestones

Hughes, Randall E.

CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS AND POSTERS

Emerson, T. E., R. E. Hughes, S.U. Wisseman, J. Richards, and S. Boles (2010). Sourcing Cahokia earspools. Paper presented at Second Science and Archaeology Symposium. Sponsored by the Program for Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials, ISAS, University of Illinois, Champaign. November 12.

Abstract: While earspools are often considered to be emblematic of Mississippian elites their actual recovery from graves and habitation sites is uncommon. This is especially true of stone earspools. Over the last 15 years the Midwestern Archaeometric Working Group team has had occassion to encounter and analyze the raw material in a number of Midwestern stone earspools. The identifications of the raw materials involved included some pipestones, siltstone, and even ceramic forms. The recent discovery of an earspool workshop area at the East St. Louis Mound Center has provided an opportunity to re-examine our data on raw materials sources of earspools. This revealed that the previously unrecognized primary source for Cahokia Mississippian earspools was from the Baraboo pipestone quarries in west central Wisconsin.

Thomas Emerson, Kenneth Farnsworth, Sarah Wisseman, Randall Hughes, The Power and Lure of the Exotic? Reexamining the Place of Distant Pipestone Quarries in the Hopewellian Interaction Sphere,World Archaeological Congress (Dublin, Ireland, June-July 2008)

Abstract:
June Helm’s observation that spatial distance often correlates with spiritual power has become an axiom in archaeological interpretations of the role of exotic materials in local contexts. Nowhere has this been more evident than in interpretations of the North American Hopewell Interaction Sphere. The circulation of exotic materials throughout the Eastern U.S. and their accumulation in massive mortuary caches peaked during the Hopewell culture (200 B.C. to 300 A.D.). Hopewell smoking pipes made in Ohio and then circulated to foreign locations was an integral part of this exchange model. A decade of archaeometric sourcing of pipestone quarries and artifacts, however, has shown that pipestone distribution challenges conventional assumptions of ritual extraction, acquisition, deposition, and spiritual power based on a presumed exotic source. The implication of this differential acquisition and avoidance of exotic pipestone for understanding both the origins and development
Hopewell religious and sociopolitical power is explored.

International Symposium on Archaeometry (Siena, Italy, May 2008)

Provenance studies of midwestern pipestones using a portable spectrometer

Sarah Wisseman, Thomas Emerson, Randall Hughes, and Kenneth Farnworth

For the past decade, a University of Illinois team of archaeologists and geologists has been souring stone artifacts from the Midcontinental United States using a shoebox-size portable spectrometer and complementary mineralogical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PIMA SPTM (Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer), first developed and used by an Australian company for mineral exploration, is both non-destructive and fast, requiring only 30 seconds per reading. After defining variation within previously known and new quarry sources in Illinois, Ohio, and Minnesota, good results have been achieved with matching Mississippian "red goddess" figurines (ca. A.D. 1100-1200) and Hopewellian pipes (ca. 50 B.C.-A.D. 250) with specific flint clays and pipestones. These results have forced archaeologists to reevaluate raw material procurement, artifact production, and redistribution over time. For example, the Mississippian figurines recovered from in or around the site of Cahokia in East St. Louis, Illinois, were thought to have been made from red stones from as far away as Arkansas and Minnesota. Instead, our work has shown that the primary flint clay source for these artifacts is close to Cahokia in Missouri. Similarly, many Hopewellian pipes presumed to have been made from Ohio pipestone were in fact produced from both northern Illinois pipestone and Minnesota catlinite. A bonus feature of the PIMA instrument is that it can detect repairs and restorations made from plaster without dismantling the artifacts. Oral Paper

Implement Petrology Group International Symposium (York, England, September 2007)
Reinterpreting North American Native exchange patterns through mineralogical analysis
Thomas Emerson, Randall Hughes, Sarah Wisseman, and Kenneth Farnsworth (oral paper)

Implement Petrology Group International Symposium (York, England, September 2007) York Poster
Identifying Implement Source Quarries with Mineralogical Analysis
Randall E. Hughes, Sarah U. Wisseman, Thomas E. Emerson, Kenneth B. Farnsworth (poster)

Society for American Archaeology (San Juan, Puerto Rico, April 2006) (poster) SAA 2006 Poster
Close to Home? Pipestone Resource Utilization in the Midwest
Sarah U. Wisseman, Randall E. Hughes, Thomas E. Emerson, Kenneth B. Farnsworth

Midwest Archaeological Conference (Urbana, IL, October 2006)
The Catlinite Conundrum
Sarah U. Wisseman, Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Kenneth B. Farnsworth

Midwest Archaeological Conference (Dayton, OH October 2005)
Sourcing Squier and Davis' Mound City Pipe Cache
Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Kenneth B. Farnsworth, and Sarah U. Wisseman

23rd Annual Meeting of the Wisconsin Archaeological Survey, Madison, April 23, 2005
Sourcing Aztalan's Ear Spools
John Richards, Randall E. Hughes, and Thomas E. Emerson

Annual Meeting, Friends of Albany Mounds Foundation, Albany, IL, April 19, 2005
Albany Mounds State Historic Site, Rock River Pipestone, and the Hopewell Interaction Sphere
Thomas E. Emerson

Society of American Archaeology (Salt Lake City, Utah, April, 2005)
Turning the World Upside Down: PIMA Sourcing of Scioto Hopewell Temper Mound Pipes
Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Kenneth Farnsworth, and Sarah Wisseman

Conventional wisdom links Hopewell sites in the Scioto Valley with the production and distribution of platform pipes made from the local Feurt Hill pipestone. Our ongoing investigations of Hopewell pipestone sources focuses on the large pipe cache at Tremper Mound using PIMA technology. We have determined that while a small number of pipes were made from Minnesota catlinite, Feurt Hills pipestone, and local sedimentary rocks, the majority were crafted from Sterling pipestone from northern Illinois. Based on this information we propose that the Hopewell Tremper occupants focused on accumulating pipes from diverse locales rather than on their production and distribution.

Archaeological Sciences of the Americas (Tucson, Arizona, September 23-26, 2004)
Using a Portable, Non-destructive PIMA SPTM Spectrometer to Source Archaeological Materials and to Detect Restorations in Museum Objects
Sarah U. Wisseman, Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, and Mary R. Hynes

A team of archaeologists and geologists demonstrate how a shoebox-size Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA), first used by Australian geologists for mineral exploration, can be applied to provenance and authenticity studies. Good results have been achieved on stone Cahokia "red goddess" figurines and Hopewellian pipes recovered from sites in the Midwestern United States. The data from this totally non-destructive method for determining mineral composition support earlier analyses by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sequential acid dissolution-inductively coupled plasma (SAD-ICP) and confirm pipestone sources close to the artifact find-spots (Missouri for the figurines and northwestern Illinois for the pipes). The combined results are forcing archaeologists to reevaluate raw material procurement, artifact production, and redistribution for the Middle Mississippian (ca. A.D. 1000-1400) and Middle Woodland (ca. 50 B.C.-A.D. 250) periods. PIMA spectroscopy has also proven useful for characterizing low-fired ceramics containing little or no temper, and distinguishing restoration materials (plaster, shellac, etc.) from original components. The PIMA's advantages (portability, speed, and non-destructiveness) make it a valuable addition to the archaeometrist's arsenal of analytical techniques, most of which are laboratory-based and require some degree of destructive sampling.

Society of American Archaeology (Milwaukee, April 9-13, 2003)
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Sourcing Eastern Woodlands Pipes and Figurines
Sarah U. Wisseman, Thomas E. Emerson, Mary R. Hynes, and Randall E. Hughes

A team of archaeologists and geologists has used a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA) to confirm Missouri flint clay as the material used to make Cahokian pipes and figurines. Our current focus is identifying pipestone sources outside of Ohio for Hopewellian pipes and characterizing catlinite used in different periods throughout the Midwest. The shoebox-size PIMA spectrometer is portable, easy to operate, fast (30 seconds per reading), and totally non-destructive. While especially useful in determining the mineral composition of valuable artifacts that cannot be destructively sampled, PIMA spectroscopy is most appropriate as a complement to traditional laboratory techniques such as X-ray diffraction.

48th Annual Meeting of the Midwest Archaeological Conference, Plenary Session "Recent Research on Hopewell Collections, OHS: New Ideas, New Techniques" organized by M. O. Potter--Columbus, OH (October 3-6, 2002)
Hopewell Catlinite, Tremper Mound, and PIMA Technology
Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Mary R. Hynes, Kenneth B. Farnsworth, and Sarah U. Wisseman

In the past scholars have macroscopically identified some of the red pipestone pipes utilized by Middle Woodland peoples as Minnesota catlinite. However, few archaeometric studies have been performed to verify these identifications. A recent XRD study on a small number of Wisconsin Hopewell pipes by Boszhardt and Gundersen definitively demonstrated some were made from catlinite. In this paper we report on an expanded study of Ohio (Tremper Mound), Wisconsin, and Illinois pipes using a new non-destructive PIMA technique. This research confirms the limited use of catlinite by Hopewell peoples in the Midwest.

33rd International Symposium on Archaeometry--Amsterdam (April 22-26, 2002)
Compositional Analyses Of Archaeological Materials Using A Non-Destructive Portable Spectrometer
S. Wisseman (ATAM), T. Emerson (ITARP), M. Hynes (ATAM), R. Hughes (ISGS), D. Moore (ISGS), P. DeMaris (ISGS)

A team at the University of Illinois is employing a shoebox-size PIMA (Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer) spectrometer in provenance studies of stone Cahokia "red goddess" figurines and Hopewellian pipes recovered from sites in the Midwestern United States. The data from this totally non-destructive method for determining mineral composition support earlier analyses by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sequential acid dissolution-inductively coupled plasma (SAD-ICP) and confirm pipestone sources close to the artifact find-spots (Missouri for the figurines and northwestern Illinois for the pipes). The combined results are forcing archaeologists to reevaluate raw material procurement, artifact production, and redistribution for the Middle Mississippian (ca. A.D. 1000-1400) and Middle Woodland (ca. 50 B.C.-A.D. 250) periods. PIMA spectroscopy has also proven useful for characterizing low-fired ceramics containing little or no temper, and distinguishing restoration materials (plaster, shellac, etc.) from original components. The PIMA's advantages (portability, speed, and non-destructiveness) make it a valuable addition to the archaeometrist's arsenal of analytical techniques, most of which are laboratory-based and require some degree of destructive sampling.

67th Annual Society for American Archaeology Conference--Denver, CO (March 10-24, 2002)
Red Stone Figurines and the Context of Cahokian Acquisition
Thomas E. Emerson, Sarah Wisseman, Randall Hughes, and Mary Hynes

Twelfth century Cahokia is depicted as the center of an economic network that stretched across the eastern United States. This supposition is largely untested through archaeometric analyses. Red stone figurines are one of the premier art works involved in this exchange. X-ray diffraction and complementary analyses have demonstrated that the specimens in the Cahokia locality were locally produced from Missouri flint clays. Based on these findings we have continued to investigate the sources of other Southeastern red stone effigies. This expanded investigation, using spectroscopic PIMA technology, indicates most of figurines were crafted at Cahokia itself.

58th Annual Southeastern Archaeological Conference--Chattanooga, TN (November 14-17, 2001)
Cahokian Figurines in the Greater Southeast: The Use of PIMA Technology to Source Mississippi Art
Thomas E. Emerson, Mary Hynes, Randall Hughes, Sarah Wisseman, and Duane Moore

The Southeast has long been considered the source of many of the large red stone effigy pipes produced by Mississippian peoples. However, X-ray diffraction and complementary analyses by our research group have demonstrated that the specimens in the Cahokia locality were, in fact, locally produced in the 12th century AD from Missouri flint clays. Based on these findings we have continued our research to investigate the sources of stone used to manufacture other Southeastern red stone effigies. This expanded investigation of museum specimens has been possible through the use of a non-destructive spectroscopic PIMA technology. Our initial analysis suggests that many of these red stone effigies were crafted from Missouri flint clays and were likely produced at Cahokia itself.

59th Annual Plains Anthropological Conference, Lincoln, NE (November 1-3, 2001)
Sourcing Caddoan and Cahokian Figurines with PIMA Technology
Thomas E. Emerson, Mary Hynes, Randall Hughes, Sarah Wisseman

The Caddoan region, especially the area around Spiro, has long been considered the source of many of the large red stone effigy pipes produced in late prehistory. However, X-ray diffraction and complementary analyses by our research group have demonstrated that the specimens in the Cahokia locality were locally produced in the 12th century AD from Missouri flint clays. Based on these findings we have continued our research to investigate the sources of stone used to manufacture Caddoan red stone effigies. This expanded investigation of museum specimens has been possible through the use of a non-destructive spectroscopic PIMA technology. Our initial analysis suggests that many of these Caddoan red stone effigies were crafted from Missouri flint clays and were likely produced at Cahokia itself.

47th Annual Midwest Archaeological Conference--LaCrosse, WI (October 12-14, 2001)
PIMA Technology and Cahokia Flint Clay Figures in the Upper Mississippi River Valley
Thomas E. Emerson, Mary Hynes, Sarah Wisseman, Randall Hughes

The Southeast has been considered the source of the large red stone effigy pipes produced by Mississippian peoples. X-ray diffraction and complementary analyses by our research group proved that the 12 century AD specimens at Cahokia were produced from Missouri flint clays. Based on these findings we have continued our research to investigate the sources of stone used for Midwestern red stone effigies. This expanded investigation has been performed using a non-destructive spectroscopic PIMA technology. Our analyses indicates a Cahokia source. However, unlike the situation in the Southeast, few large red stone figures seemed to have move out of Cahokia into the UMRV.

66th Annual Society for American Archaeology--New Orleans, LA (April 2001)
Application of a PIMA SPª (Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer) to Pipestone Flint Clay Studies of Two Native American Cultures
Mary R. Hynes, Sarah U. Wisseman, Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Duane M. Moore

Geological Society of America--Reno, NV (November 2000)
Two New Archaeometric Tools
Randall E. Hughes, Sarah U. Wisseman, Mary R. Hynes, Duane M. Moore, and Thomas E. Emerson

X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of two Native American pipestones showed: 1) that a nearby Missouri flint clay was used for 900-year-old Cahokia figurines, not an Arkansas or Oklahoma source; 2) that a northwestern Illinois flint clay was quarried for 2000-year-old pipestone artifacts of the Havana Hopewell Culture, not a southern Ohio flint clay; and 3) that mineralogical analyses often provide superior source discriminations and are a best first step before chemical analyses.

A sequential acid dissolution-XRD-inductively coupled plasma (XRD/ICP) spectroscopy method verified the cookeite-like chlorite that is unique to the Missouri flint clay and gave us an accurate formula for berthierine in Illinois flint clay. These analyses detected lithium that fills previously reported octahedral vacancies in the berthierine structure. The method can be used for most geological materials.

The PIMA (portable infrared mineral analyzer) increases analysis speed (and decreases cost) to about one/min., and provides completely portable and nondestructive mineral analyses. Initial PIMA insights include: 1) validation of the Missouri source for Cahokia artifacts; 2) identification of burned and unburned fragments within reassembled Cahokia figurines and debris collections; and 3) corrected sources for catlinite-like artifacts. Because the PIMA sees mineral-structural features that are hidden from XRD, a lab-mounted PIMA is a near-perfect research complement to XRD. The PIMA also is being used to analyze sediment cores, identify and select representative samples from large collections, analyze thin section collections, characterize ceramic source clays, and measure the degree of ceremonial burning or firing of artifacts.

Clay Minerals Society--Chicago, IL (June 2000)
Application of a PIMA SPª (Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer) to Pipestone Flint Clay Studies of Two Native American Cultures
Mary R. Hynes, Sarah U. Wisseman, Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Duane M. Moore Poster pdf

30th International Symposium on Archaeometry--Urbana, IL (1996)
Sourcing the Cahokia-Style Figurines
Randall E. Hughes and Thomas E. Emerson

Annual Meeting of American Association for the Advancement of Science--Chicago, IL (1992)
New Illinois Pipestone Revises Hopewell Trade Routes
Randall E. Hughes, Duane M. Moore, Kenneth B. Farnsworth, and Thomas E. Berres

54th Annual Plains Anthropological Conference-- Iowa City, IA (1996)
Flint clay, Figurines, and the Cahokia Trade in Elite Goods
Thomas E. Emerson, and Randall E. Hughes

54th Annual Plains Anthropological Conference-- Iowa City, IA (1996)
Minerals distinguish Native American pipestone sources
Randall E. Hughes, Duane M. Moore, Thomas E. Berres, Thomas E. Emerson, and Kenneth B. Farnsworth

27th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society, Columbia, MO (1990)
Berthierine pipestones of Native Americans in the Mid-continent
Randall E. Hughes, Duane M. Moore, Thomas E. Berres, and Kenneth B. Farnsworth

OTHER PRESENTATIONS

Understanding Our Earth Scientific Seminar, November 12, 2003
Randall Hughes, Emeritus Sr. Geologist, ISGS
Better, Faster, Cheaper, and Friendlier Mineralogy: Status and Future Potential of Our 70+-Year-Old Program

Indiana Geological Survey seminar, February 6, 2003
Randall Hughes, Senior Research Scientist, ISGS
Better, Faster, Cheaper Mineralogy with the PIMA-SPTM (Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer)

ISGS Seminar, Jan 29, 2003
Thomas Emerson, Director, ITARP
Prehistoric Art and Geological Sciences: Inseparable Companions

Anthropology 398 class, April 5 2002

Sarah Wisseman, Director, ATAM
PIMA SP Spectroscopy for Archaeologists

Beckman Institute seminar, UIUC, Feb. 19, 2002
Sarah Wisseman, Director, ATAM
Science in the Art Museum

Materials Research Laboratory seminar, May 22, 2001
Sarah Wisseman, Director, ATAM
Science and Archaeology: Interdisciplinary Research by the ATAM Program

East Central Illinois Archaeological Society, March 14, 2001
Randall E. Hughes, Senior Research Scientist, ISGS
What the Silent Stones say to a Geologist: Applying Mineralogical and Related Geochemical Methods to Archaeology

Imaging Technology Group, University of Illinois, November 2, 2000
Sarah Wisseman, Director, ATAM
Images of the Past: Recent Research by the Program on Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials

ATAM seminar, Oct. 25, 1999
Randall E. Hughes, Senior Research Scientist, ISGS
The New PIMA ((Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer: A New Aid in the Mineralogical "Sourcing" of Stone and Ceramic Artifacts

ISGS Seminar, Sept. 22, 1998
Randall E. Hughes, Senior Research Scientist, ISGS
The New PIMA (Portable Near-Infrared Mineral Analyzer) for Aggregate, Archaeology, Clay Mineral, Fuel, Geochemistry, Mapping, and other ISGS Programs